Core Facts

  • Population:  95.4M
  • GDP:  USD 194 billion
  • GDP per head:  USD 1685
  • Workforce:  53M
  • Unemployment (2017):  2.11%
  • Average high skilled monthly income (2017):  USD 530


A new Labour Code came into effect in May 2013.  The new Code followed several years of preparation and intense public discussion. The changes reflected changes in the employment market in recent years and in society generally. The old Code had not been handling these changes well, resulting in high levels of disputes.

The new Code introduced for the first time regulation of manpower outsourcing, including the requirement that manpower outsourcing service providers be licensed. The Code also places limits on the terms of outsourcing contracts.

After several years,  the Code is now under review and extensive changes are being considered to bring it up to date.  It is expected the changes will be effective by April 2018.